3D Printing nerve networks with living neurons.

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Medical research with a revolutionary breakthrough has taken place that promises to reshape the way we understand and explore the human nervous system. Engineers have achieved a milestone that was once thought to be the stuff of science fiction – the creation of 3D nerve networks using “bioinks” infused with living neurons. This innovative technique opens the door to crafting 3D neural circuits that closely emulate the intricate connections found within the human brain. At the heart of this scientific marvel lies the ingenious use of “bioinks.” These bioinks are not ordinary inks but specially formulated materials teeming with living neurons. Researchers have harnessed the power of these bioinks to bridge the gap between gray and white matter, a feat previously deemed extraordinarily challenging.

One of the key highlights of this groundbreaking achievement is the faithful replication of the brain’s gray-and-white matter arrangement. Two distinct bioinks were employed in this process: one infused with living cells and the other without. This approach closely mimics the natural architecture of the human brain, where gray matter (comprising cell bodies and dendrites) and white matter (comprising axons) coexist. The results of this pioneering work are nothing short of astonishing. The 3D neural structures that emerged from this process are a testament to the possibilities of modern engineering. These structures not only replicate the gray-and-white matter arrangement but also exhibit authentic connections. Neurites, the thread-like extensions of nerve cells, intricately link different cortex layers within these 3D neural circuits, mirroring the complexity of the human brain.

Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of this achievement is the newfound life within these 3D-printed nerve networks. These bioprinted networks exhibit spontaneous nerve activity, akin to the firing of neurons in a living brain. They respond to stimuli, a behavior that was once thought to be exclusive to organic neural networks. The implications of this advance are profound. It ushers in a new era of neurological research, offering a deeper understanding of disease mechanisms, drug effects on the nervous system, and the intricacies of neural activity. These 3D-printed nerve networks serve as a powerful tool for unraveling the mysteries of the human brain.

As we stand on the precipice of a new frontier in neuroscience and bioprinting, the work of these engineers at Monash University serves as a beacon of hope. Their success in creating 3D nerve networks that come to life within the laboratory holds the promise of transformative discoveries and breakthroughs that could change the landscape of medicine as we know it.

3D-Printed Nerve Networks Come Alive. Research Article/Open Access. Yue YaoHarold A. ColemanLaurence MeagherJohn S. ForsytheHelena C. Parkington. First published: 27 June 2023. 3D Functional Neuronal Networks in Free-Standing Bioprinted Hydrogel Constructs.

Source: Monash University. In the laboratories of Monash University, engineering researchers have accomplished the seemingly impossible. They have used “bioinks” infused with living nerve cells, or neurons, to 3D-print nerve networks that not only grow but also transmit and respond to nerve signals. This achievement is more than a scientific marvel; it is a testament to human ingenuity and the boundless possibilities of modern medicine.

Possibilities with 3D Printing for internal tissue repair

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3D printing technology has been used in surgery and repairing damaged tissue inside the body, which is impossible.

Repairing tissue damage from the inside of the body would require a printer capable of printing at a microscopic level, with a resolution much finer than what is currently possible with 3D printing. Additionally, the printer must work within the human body’s complex environment, navigating around organs and tissues without causing further damage.

3D Printing technology progressed to develop a new type of bioprinting, which involves printing living cells and tissues but is still experimental. While 3D printing for various medical applications, including tissue repair, using it to repair tissue damage from the inside of the body. It is not currently achievable with current technology other than 3D printing. It has not yet been used for widespread clinical applications.

This insertable 3D printer will repair tissue damage from the inside