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Magnetic 3D bioprinting uses magnetic nanoparticles to 3D print cell structures. The magnetic nanoparticles are biocompatible they can be in contact with living cells without causing adverse effects. The process makes cells magnetic by tagging them with magnetic particles. Once the cells become magnetic, external magnetic forces are used to 3D printed the cells into specific cell structures. A technique called magnetic levitation is used to levitate cells in a container using a magnet above the container. Levitation of the cells causes the cells to aggregate rapidly.
The first 3D bioprinting system was commercially made available by Nano3D Biosciences. This technology is targeted for use in the pharmaceutical industry. This technology can be used for building simple cellular structures such as spheroids and rings as well as complex structures such as aortic valves.