What materials are used in 3D Printing and 4D Printing?

3D printed resistive soft sensors

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According to related publications from Shih B., Christianson C., Gillespie K., Lee S., Mayeda J., Huo Z., Tolley M. T. (2019), “Design considerations for 3D printed, soft, multi-material resistive sensors for soft robotics. Frontiers in Robotics and AISubmersible robots are finding ever-increasing uses in search and rescue, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. Artificial muscles made out of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) provide an attractive choice for driving submersible robotics based on their high energy density, lightweight, and efficiency. One challenge for most DEAs is that that they require conductive electrodes that are made out of materials that are challenging to the pattern, opaque, and/or add stiffness to the devices.”

Benjamin Shih1, Caleb Christianson2, Kyle Gillespie1†, Sebastian Lee1, Jason Mayeda1, Zhaoyuan Huo1 and Michael T. Tolley 1
Bioinspired Robotics and Design Lab.  Design Considerations for 3D Printed, Soft, Multimaterial Resistive Sensors for Soft Robotics.

3D Printed rocket engine combustion chamber

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Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center state that “it records the test-firing of a 3D-printed combustion chamber. Researchers are exploring advanced additive manufacturing solutions, introducing higher-performing alloys and refined printing processes.”
We are curious, so from some comments,
3D printed? From what material? How?
What kind of printer? Is there a video of printing this engine?
How does one hemisphere constitute one chamber?

NASA. (2019, June 25). NASA and Virgin Orbit 3D Print Test Rocket Combustion Chamber. NASA.