What materials are used in 3D Printing and 4D Printing?

4D Printing can be flexible

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4D printing can be flexible. Flexibility is one of the critical characteristics of 4D printed materials. 4D printing technology allows materials to change their shape, structure, and properties in response to various stimuli, such as heat, moisture, light, or pressure. This ability to adapt to different environmental conditions makes 4D printed materials very flexible and versatile.

Flexible 4D printed materials can be used in various applications, from robotics and aerospace to biomedical devices and consumer products. For example, 4D-printed sensors can monitor real-time temperature, pressure, or humidity changes. In contrast, 4D-printed structures can create self-assembling or self-healing materials that adapt to changing environmental conditions.

Flexible 4D printing materials can be made from various materials, including polymers, metals, and ceramics, and can be designed to respond to different stimuli in different ways. For example, a 4D-printed material could be designed to fold or bend to heat or moisture or stiffen or soften in response to pressure or light. The flexibility of 4D printing materials makes them a promising technology for a wide range of applications, and ongoing research is expected to continue expanding the capabilities of this technology.

4D additive software


3D printed Mars

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As explained by Swiss trainee Miro Voellmy 3D printed Mars, “Anyone with a 3D printer can build their own ExoMy, at an estimated budget of €500 or less. The source code is available on GitHub along with a step-by-step assembly guide and tutorials.
We focused on making the design as affordable and accessible as possible. It uses a Raspberry Pi computer and off-the-shelf electronic parts available online and at any hobby shop. Our hope is that school or university students will make their own ExoMy, to become familiar with robotics, and learn about the full-sized ExoMars rover, which is scheduled for launch in 2022.”

3D print your own Mars rover with ExoMy