According to Chen X, Liu X, Ouyang M and Dr Connor Myant, a lecturer at the Dyson School of Design Engineering and Imperial College London (ICL),”explored 4D printing and its potential to herald new opportunities for industries and consumers.,”a novel electrochemical 3D printer with 2 deposition nozzles was presented which is capable of printing temperature responsive multi-metal (copper and nickel) 4D structures. An electrospun nanofibre nib was used to provide sufficient back pressure to the hydraulic head exerted by the electrolyte, replacing the porous sponge material used in prior works”.
3D printed active materials for robots, inspiration from invertebrates.
According to Dr. Ed Habtour, ARL researcher who specializes in nonlinear structural dynamics and lead author Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani, “Current military robots have two major limitations that restrict them from mimicking the locomotion of biological organisms. Unlike current 3-D printed DEAs, the new fabrication method does not require post-processing steps, such as assembly, drying or annealing. With the new 3-D printing method, the Solider can take advantage of the unique actuation properties of soft DEAs at the fundamental materials level with microscale resolution and complexity, with minimal prior expertise.”
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