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3D printed human tissues using DNA
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As mentioned by Professor Gartner of UCSF, ¨have developed a technique to build tiny models of human tissue called organoids. The technique uses DNA to guide the assembly of cells into organoids. This technique is called DNA Programmed Assembly of Cells (DPAC). The research team created several organoid arrays mimicking human tissues such as mammary glands. The research was published in the journal Nature Methods on Aug. 31, 2015.
This technique incubates cells with snippets of single strands of DNA The DNA attaches to the cell’s outer membrane. The incubated cell attaches to other cells that are incubated with matching DNA strands. In other words, the cell doesn’t attach with other incubated cells if their DNA sequence does not match. A cell can be incubated with more than one type of DNA cell. This allows the cell to attach to different types of cells. This technique is similar to playing with Legos. A lego piece can attach to other lego pieces if they have matching sides. This simple trick allows lego pieces to be combined to build a very large variety of toys. Similarly, DPAC uses DNA strands attached to cells to create different types of organoids.¨
Building Human Breast Tissue, Cell by Cell.
DNA-guided 3-D printing of human tissue.
3D Tissue Printing Using a DNA Guidance System.
Researchers Discover Way to Print Out Human Tissue.
Programmed synthesis of three-dimensional tissues.
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3D Bioprinting using Nano.
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Magnetic 3D bioprinting uses magnetic nanoparticles to 3D print cell structures. The magnetic nanoparticles are biocompatible they can be in contact with living cells without causing adverse effects. The process makes cells magnetic by tagging them with magnetic particles. Once the cells become magnetic, external magnetic forces are used to 3D printed the cells into specific cell structures. A technique called magnetic levitation is used to levitate cells in a container using a magnet above the container. Levitation of the cells causes the cells to aggregate rapidly.
The first 3D bioprinting system was commercially made available by Nano3D Biosciences. This technology is targeted for use in the pharmaceutical industry. This technology can be used for building simple cellular structures such as spheroids and rings as well as complex structures such as aortic valves.